Skills for Life in England, Wales and Northern Ireland or Be
careful what you wish for
by James Simpson
This article concerns a policy initiative in England, Skills for
Life, and how it has impinged on the lives of teachers in adult basic
education, in particular teachers of ESOL—English for Speakers
of Other Languages1. Historically, adult basic education
in England was characterized by a lack of cohesion and overall coordination;
funding was patchy and ad hoc, and teachers’ conditions
and pay were often poor.
In the 1980s and 1990s in particular, practitioners felt that adult
and community education was particularly threatened. Hence the general
welcome of a new policy for adult basic education at the turn of
the century, one which promised to improve both its funding and its
Now imagine you are an English teacher, just returning to England
after spending ten years teaching English as a Foreign Language in
countries around the world. You have enjoyed teaching, and want to
continue now you have come home. You want to put your talents as
a teacher to good use; the private sector is very poorly paid, and
teaching in Higher Education holds no appeal for you. A friend tells
you about teaching ESOL to new arrivals to the UK. These students,
says your friend, urgently need to learn English. With eyes wide
with hope and idealism, you apply for a job teaching ESOL at your
local College of Further Education. Preparing for your interview,
you do some background reading, and discover that ESOL is part of
something called Skills for Life.
Skills for Life and ESOL
The policy directing the funding of Adult Basic Skills—Literacy,
Numeracy, ESOL and more recently ICT—in England, Wales and
Northern Ireland is Skills for Life. Early in Tony Blair’s
first New Labour government, a review of basic skills (DfEE 1999)
recommended the launching of a national strategy to reduce the number
of adults with low levels of basic skills.
ESOL was not originally included as a ‘skill for life’.
ESOL activists lobbied hard for its inclusion: here was a chance
for proper funding, as well as an opportunity to be taken seriously.
Pressure from practitioners contributed to the government working
group report (DfEE 2000) which led to ESOL entering wholly into the
adult basic skills agenda or the first time. Skills for Life brought
with it the creation of statutory core curricula for ESOL, Literacy
and Numeracy, new teacher-training and inspection frameworks, and
qualifications mapped against national standards. Literacy educators Mary Hamilton and Yvonne Hillier have this
to say about Skills for Life:
By 2001, Skills for
Life had emerged as a cornerstone of the newly integrated Learning
Skills sector. Basic skills were claimed to be crucial not
only for employment, but—in
line with New Labour’s
commitments to social inclusion and ‘joined up government’—also
to personal, family, citizenship and community participation
(Hamilton and Hillier p. 14).
At your job interview, your future manager asks you about your qualifications.
You are keen to stress your degree in English, your Diploma in teaching
EFL to Adults, and your experience teaching abroad. You are surprised
to be told that you will probably have to do a post-graduate teaching
qualification and a subject specialist course for ESOL.
Standards and standardization
In a drive to set standards across Skills for Life, teachers are
required to hold or be working towards standardized qualifications.
These are a Certificate of Education, together with a ‘Level
4’ (i.e. post-graduate) subject specialist qualification in
their area. So no matter how well qualified they already are to teach
in other contexts, teachers entering Skills for Life are obliged
to follow courses designed to ensure that they are qualified to a
standard—and standardized—level. This can cause resentment
among practitioners. As one ESOL manager said recently:
On the whole, the drive to standardize qualifications in the sector—obligating
often highly-qualified practitioners to assign precious time to a
course which they feel has little worth—has had a substantial
negative impact. Anecdotal evidence includes: experienced teachers
leaving the profession as they feel the commitment is not worth making
on a fractional contract; resentment towards ‘management’ imposing
the requirement and a resulting downturn in good vibes; lack of time
and inclination to do other, more relevant (?), CPD [continuing professional
development] options; and probably more.
You are offered a job by the college, as an hourly paid ESOL
teacher, on condition that you spend a day a week working towards
your Cert. Ed. and Level 4 qualifications. You have 12 hours teaching,
and you begin to realize that you are going to struggle financially.
But you enjoy your work, your students like you and respond well
to your enthusiasm. You have two different classes, each meeting
for six hours a week. The students in your ESOL beginners
class have little or no literacy in their first language. Teaching
them literacy in English proves very challenging, and you arrange
to attend an ESOL literacy training course in addition to your
other courses. Your ESOL and Citizenship students are desperate
to pass their upcoming exam. They are mostly refugees, applying
for permission to remain in the UK, and to be eligible they have
to demonstrate progress on an ESOL course which has a citizenship
You have developed a bank of materials and lesson plans from
your previous work teaching EFL abroad,and you spend time
every evening adapting them to your current students’ needs.
At the end of your second week in your new job, your manager observes
a lesson. In the debriefing, she asks why your lesson plan is not
mapped to the ESOL Curriculum.
The Adult ESOL Core Curriculum
Literacy, numeracy and ESOL in Skills for Life each have a statutory
curriculum. In ESOL prior to Skills forLife, there was a dearth of
resources and direction for teachers. This was to change drastically
with the introduction of the national Adult ESOL Core Curriculum
(DfES 2001) and the subsequent publication of materials to accompany
The curriculum is organized around reading, writing, speaking and
listening (though with little reference to beginner ESOL literacy).
It is a functional curriculum with an integrated grammar curriculum.
Areas of the curriculum are identified with codes (e.g. ‘Ws/E1.1a’–writing
sentence/Entry Level 1, section 1a), with descriptors and sub-descriptors
(e.g. ‘Skills, knowledge and understanding/Adults should learn
to: 1a. construct a simple sentence, using basic word order and verb
form/show understanding of: (a) the concept of a sentence and that
sentences can be put together to make text;’ etc.). Examples
and sample activities are also given.
The curriculum as a tool to help teaching is dauntingly dense and
complex, and is currently undergoing a review. It was originally
meant to be used as the basis for placement, programme design, and
assessment. Over time its status has shifted from being a source
of advice and recommendation to become a prescriptive document. Inspection
and audit, and the need to provide ‘evidence’ for learning,
has resulted in some managers demanding full referencing (‘mapping’)
of lesson plans and materials to the curriculum.
Your manager also asks you why you are not making more use of the
Skills for Life materials. These are the professional-looking materials
which you were told were circulated by the Government to all teachers
of ESOL. You have not used them much because you feel they do not
quite fit the needs of your students, particularly those in your
beginners class, who are learning to read and write for the first
Skills for Life materials
The curriculum is accompanied by learning materials for each level.
Just as ESOL materials of earlier times were influenced by prevailing
attitudes to immigrants, the Skills for Life materials reflect current
concerns with multiculturalism, integration and social cohesion.
They therefore show thriving multicultural communities in which migrants
are welcome to maintain their traditions and identities, but within
a framework of integration and social responsibility. Thus there
are activities which draw on festivities such as weddings and traditions
from various cultures and religions alongside examples of harmonious
interactions between neighbours from different ethnic backgrounds
using English as a lingua franca. There is coverage of ‘survival’ English
in subjects such as local transport, finding a doctor, and phoning
the emergency services.
The response of ESOL teachers to the Skills for Life materials was
mixed. In some institutions the materials were used from the start
as the syllabus for ESOL courses; this tended to lead either to slavish
adherence to the materials or to their outright rejection. Confusion
reigned over whether inspectors would demand they be used to the
exclusion of other materials. One teacher commented:
[W]hen it was inspection earlier this year we were discouraged
to use EFL-type books whethe inspector was around because they
had to be ESOL materials for ESOL students. So I go and use the
ESOL books, the Skills for Life stuff, and I got inspected in one
of the classes, in the community, and it was fine. But one question
she did ask was, ‘Do
we just use Skills for Life material?’ and I said, ‘No’,
because we use other books as well. So, I was able to give examples.
I didn’t like to say, ‘Oh, this is one of the very few
lessons I’ve used this, and that’s only because you’re
here, otherwise I wouldn’t have used it.
More typically though, teachers were given the materials as a new
resource which they could use as they deemed fit. There was more
criticism than praise amongst teachers for the materials, especially
in their scant coverage of grammar and functional approach to literacy.
Teachers have since found themselves spending hours supplementing
and adapting the very materials that were supposed to be an answer
to their problems.
As well as making some use of the Skills for Life materials,
you continue to use your home-produced materials, but you ensure
they are mapped against the curriculum using the correct code.
Referencing your materials and lesson plans means that you are
spending even longer hours at night on planning, to satisfy bureaucratic,
rather than learning, needs. The following month, your manager
tells her team during a staff meeting, ‘We are having an inspection next
month, and I need to see your ILPs.’ You are not surprised
to hear groans from your colleagues.
The individual learning plan (ILP)
ILPs have been a central part of ESOL teaching since 2001; ‘how
to write an ILP’ features on all teacher training programmes,
and in the pages of a handbook on ESOL (Schellekens, 2007). NIACE,
the National Institute for Adult and Continuing Education, has this
advice on ILPs:
This [the ILP] is based upon screening, initial and diagnostic Assessment,
and follows agreement with the learner on goals and targets. A completed
ILP should include:
• Results of assessments;
• The learner’s long-term goals;
• The goals of the program to be followed, cross-referenced
to the national standards or
• Any other goals that the learner wishes to achieve, both
social and personal;
• Targets and dates for meeting them;
• A programme of dated progress reviews;
• Space to record achievement of targets and any developments
in the ILP;
• Signatures of learner and teacher.
ILPs were first used in literacy classes configured as ‘workshops’,
where students learn individually, at their own pace. Government
policy rhetoric lays heavy emphasis on ‘individualization’ and
more lately ‘personalization’ of learning, and ILPs have
been promoted tirelessly by the Government and inspectorates for
use across Skills for Life. They are, however, far from accepted
as ‘common sense’. Many ESOL teachers know they have
no theoretical basis, and are not suited to the group processes through
which much ESOL learning happens. As one ESOL teacher educator commented:
It is this idea that, somehow, they are good practice, and I feel
that there is no evidence to show that they improve learning
I mean, they might, but do we know? And I think that is what
really exasperates me, the way that they have been kind of taken
on as the gold standard, for no reason.
Beginning life as a recommendation, the ILP has become interpreted
as a prescription by inspectorates and by managers faced with inspection.
The ILP continues to be the subject of considerable controversy and
resistance across ESOL. Responses to ILPs amongst teachers vary from
rejection to resignation or a kind of ‘strategic compliance’.
Your manager assures you that the ILP is necessary to ensure
that you differentiate between learners of mixed abilities. But
you argue that your differentiation is done mainly in ongoing classroom
talk, not months in advance on a learning plan. What is more, you
know that the students in your beginners class cannot articulate
their needs in English in any depth. You also know that there is
little point spending time writing ILPs for all the students in
the class when most of the learning they do happens in groups.
Nonetheless, you acquiesce to your manager’s demand,
and ask how best to complete an ILP. She says that you need to state
the learners’ goals in terms of SMART targets.
In writing ILPs, there is a frequent requirement that students’ aims
be expressed in the form of SMART targets. SMART is an acronym from
management training, and stands rather neatly for Specific, Measurable,
Achievable, Relevant and Timebound. Applying SMART targets to language
learning and teaching opens them up to critique, as they encourage
a disproportionate focus on atomistic aspects of language which are
easily observed, at the expense of less tangible, more profound language
Teachers in the debate over ILPs have drawn consistently on
their own knowledge of language learning. There is much evidence
to show that language learning is neither unidirectional, nor linear,
nor uniformly paced. As Patsy Lightbown and Nina Spada say in How
Languages are Learned (p. 189):
Learners may use a particular form accurately at stage x (suggesting
they have learned that form), fail to produce that form at stage
y, and produce it accurately again at stage z....Language development
is not just adding one rule after another. Rather, it involves processes
of integrating new language forms and patterns into an existing interlanguage,
readjusting and restructuring until all the pieces fit.
It is also clear that the rate at which development takes place
is highly idiosyncratic and varies greatly from person to person.
Here one teacher appeals to knowledge gained through observation
of her own students’ learning when making criticisms of SMART
Learners are quite inconsistent with their mistakes. So, you know
I get three pieces of writing, and I think I could make some
SMART targets according to these pieces of writing. But if I look
back at the previous ones, they didn’t make the same
mistakes then, and they keep changing.
You have now been teaching ESOL for a few months. You are becoming
tired of the long hours spent preparing lessons, handling the bureaucracy
which you regard in many cases as unnecessary, trying to maintain
your integrity as a teacher in the face of a mountain of paperwork.
You are starting to wonder whether ESOL in Skills for Life is actually
the best career path for you.
In a recent interview a teacher talked about the paperwork involved
in her job:
We have the scheme of work for the year and a lesson plan for
every lesson. They’ve got their ILPs, that has to be filled
in with all their personal information, their assessment results
and diagnostic results from the initial assessments, their learning
goals, what they’re working towards.
There’s some information, such as asking asylum seekers how
long they’ve been here, all that kind of personal information.
Then they have a sheet that has the course objectives, the group
goals with curriculum references and then their individual targets
for half term. We have a review form to do at the end of every lesson
and then for every student we have to say what stage they are at.
That comes from the inspection when they said we weren’t keeping
formal records enough. There’s
also a bit to put any test results on, for each student and whether
you’re taking any action on their ILP. There’s an evaluation
on the end of the lesson plan and for every student, an evaluation
of every student’s progress during that lesson. At the end
of term there’s all sorts of other forms.
The teacher continued in this vein, giving a lengthy description
of the bureaucratic tasks she undertakes every academic term. In
total she described seventeen separate pieces of paperwork that have
to be completed.
The last word
Along with many ESOL teachers, you display a strong sense of vocation
in your practice and in the way you talk about your work. Vocation
and commitment are the reasons you decide to stay in ESOL teaching,
despite unhappiness with other trends. Strong commitment to students,
although a common characteristic among teachers, does not always
sit easily with the managerial demands which have crept into the
field in recent years. Skills for Life undoubtedly brought much-needed
resources to adult basic education, but the price appears to be a
bureaucratic imposition on you and your colleagues, prompted by heavy
demands of standardization, inspection and audit, demands which practitioners
seem unable to resist.
JAMES SIMPSON is an applied linguist specializing
in research into the teaching and learning of English for Speakers
of Other Languages. He carried out his postgraduate studies at the
universities of Essex and Reading, and since 2004 has been
a Research Fellow at the Centre for Language Education Research at
the University of Leeds. His earlier career was spent teaching
EFL and ESOL in a variety of contexts in the UK, Europe and the Middle
East. He has recently co-written a book (with Melanie Cooke) entitled ESOL:
A critical guide,
to be published by Oxford University Press in Autumn 2008.
1 Some of the text in this article is adapted from a forthcoming
book, ESOL: A Critical Guide (Cooke and Simpson, 2008).
Cooke, Melanie, and James Simpson (forthcoming, 2008). ESOL:
A Critical Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Department for Education and Employment (1999). A Fresh Start
- Improving Literacy and Numeracy (The Moser report).
London: Basic Skills Agency. Available online at www.dfes.gov.uk/readwriteplus/Skills_for_Life_policy_documents
Department for Education and Employment (2000). Breaking the
Language Barriers: The report of the working group on
English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). Available
online at www.lifelonglearning.dfee.gov.uk/esol/index.htm
Department for Education and Skills (2001). Adult ESOL Core
Curriculum. London: Basic Skills Agency/DfES. Online version
available at ww.dfes.gov.uk/curriculum_esol/
Hamilton, Mary, and Yvonne Hillier (2006). Changing Faces of
Adult Literacy, Language and Numeracy: A Critical History.
Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
Lightbown, Patsy M., and Nina Spada (2006). How Languages are
Learned (third edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schellekens, Philida (2007). The Oxford ESOL Handbook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
NATECLA (the National Association for Teaching English and other
Community languages to Adults): www.natecla.org.uk/
RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy): www.literacy.lancs.ac.uk/rapal/
The ESOL-Research email list: www.jiscmail.ac.uk/ESOL-Research